Sie waren die Herrscher der Urzeit: Rund Millionen Jahre lebten die Dinosaurier auf unserer Erde. Die prähistorischen Reptilien bewohnten alle Teile des. Dinosaurier in Deutschland. Auch hier in Deutschland finden sich Spuren von Dinosauriern. Der Solnhofener Plattenkalk in Bayern ist eine der bedeutendsten. Dinosaurier gehören zu den beeindruckensten Lebewesen, die je unsere Erde besiedelt haben. In vielen Kinderzimmern gibt es sie heute als.
Dinosaurier in DeutschlandDinosaurier gehören zu den beeindruckensten Lebewesen, die je unsere Erde besiedelt haben. In vielen Kinderzimmern gibt es sie heute als. Größter Saurier entdeckt Rekordhalter unter den Dinosaurier-Titanen. So lang wie zwei Lkws mit Anhänger, schwer wie eine Herde Elefanten und sieben. Die Dinosaurier (Dinosauria, von altgriechisch δεινός deinós, deutsch ‚schrecklich, gewaltig' und altgriechisch σαῦρος sauros, deutsch ‚Eidechse') sind eine.
Dinosuarier Is it a dinosaur? VideoJurassic World Evolution - All 48 Dinosaurs (1080p 60FPS) The sauropods were the largest and heaviest dinosaurs. Bakker, Heuteinhamburg T. Theropoda Spinosaurus aegyptiacus. Sky Karten Adapter Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Sauropsida Clade : Archosauria.
This dinosaur has a strange combination of body parts. Museum expert Prof Paul Barrett explains why. Scientists have identified a new species of ancient reptile that fills a critical gap in the fossil record of dinosaur relatives.
Probably the most famous mass extinction of all time. But did you know some dinosaurs are still with us today?
Is a mosquito trapped in amber really the way to bring dinosaurs back from the dead? Not everything you've been led to believe about dinosaurs is true.
The Museum houses one of the world's most important dinosaur collections. Through fieldwork and studying dinosaur fossils here and in collections around the world, Museum palaeontologists are shedding light on dinosaur diets and behaviour.
Find out about their work and other intriguing dinosaur discoveries. Nopcsa was ahead of his time, publishing many creative scientific theories on dinosaurs and other reptiles.
He was also a spy and a would-be king. Although spinosaurs were named in , little was known about these giants until a centimetre-long claw was discovered in the UK in Why have so few dinosaur fossils been found in Ireland?
It's all to do with the island's geological history. Discover how sparkling roadside rocks paved the way for everything we know about Iguanodon. Researchers uncovered how the genome of a dinosaur might have looked by studying turtles and birds.
Museum dinosaur expert Paul Barrett comments on a new species of dinosaur that has unusual mix of meat-eating and plant-eating features.
One of the earliest examples of dinosaurs living in herds has been found in a remote region of Venezuela. Did you know the word 'dinosaur' wasn't coined until ?
Get a behind-the-scenes look at the scientific examination of the world's most complete Stegosaurus specimen. Discover Dacentrurus - one of the first stegosaur fossils to be found - which hides in plain sight in the Museum.
Find out more about the newest dinosaur to go on display at the Museum. Dinosaur researcher Prof Paul Barrett gives the lowdown on the most complete Stegosaurus ever found.
Watch a virtual Stegosaurus walk around as Sir David Attenborough explains how this dinosaur would have moved.
The Museum's famous Diplodocus cast is currently on a tour around the UK. Explore the history of this iconic exhibit and examine Dippy's skull in 3D to see what it tells us about the lifestyle and appearance of the Jurassic dinosaur.
Can you find Dippy's nostrils? The story of Dippy the Diplodocus stretches back more than years. Take a look at some memorable moments in pictures.
Moving a dinosaur is never easy. Watch as Museum conservators pack Dippy the Diplodocus into boxes, one bone at a time.
Cleaning Dippy the dinosaur takes more than a quick flick with a duster. Exhibition specialist Helen Walker talks us through it.
HRH The Duchess of Cambridge attended a children's tea party at the Museum to wish Dippy the dinosaur good luck on his travels around the UK.
As we prepare to send the Diplodocus on a UK tour, we take a look back at his origins and time on display. Find out about some of the other creatures you would encounter if you stepped back in time to when prehistoric dinosaurs were alive in the Mesozoic Era.
How was Earth different then? Have a look at how it might have flown. A new virtual reality experience uses the bones of a sea dragon to recreate life in Jurassic waters.
Smart cookie preferences. Change cookie preferences Accept all cookies. Skip to content. Introduction to dinosaurs. Find out about dinosaurs and what set them apart from other prehistoric reptiles.
A short overview of why dinosaurs except birds became extinct. Most research conducted since the s , however, has indicated that dinosaurs were active animals with elevated metabolisms and numerous adaptations for social interaction.
Some were herbivorous , others carnivorous. Evidence suggests that all dinosaurs were egg-laying ; and that nest -building was a trait shared by many dinosaurs, both avian and non-avian.
While dinosaurs were ancestrally bipedal , many extinct groups included quadrupedal species, and some were able to shift between these stances.
Elaborate display structures such as horns or crests are common to all dinosaur groups, and some extinct groups developed skeletal modifications such as bony armor and spines.
While the dinosaurs' modern-day surviving avian lineage birds are generally small due to the constraints of flight, many prehistoric dinosaurs non-avian and avian were large-bodied—the largest sauropod dinosaurs are estimated to have reached lengths of The misconception that non-avian dinosaurs were uniformly gigantic is based in part on preservation bias , as large, sturdy bones are more likely to last until they are fossilized.
Many dinosaurs were quite small, some measuring about 50 centimeters 20 inches in length. The first dinosaur fossils were recognized in the early 19th century, with the name "dinosaur" meaning "terrible lizard" having been coined by Sir Richard Owen in to refer to these "great fossil lizards".
Since then, mounted fossil dinosaur skeletons have been major attractions at museums worldwide, and dinosaurs have become an enduring part of popular culture.
The large sizes of some dinosaurs, as well as their seemingly monstrous and fantastic nature, have ensured their regular appearance in best-selling books and films, such as Jurassic Park.
Persistent public enthusiasm for the animals has resulted in significant funding for dinosaur science, and new discoveries are regularly covered by the media.
Under phylogenetic nomenclature , dinosaurs are usually defined as the group consisting of the most recent common ancestor MRCA of Triceratops and modern birds Neornithes , and all its descendants.
This definition includes major groups such as ankylosaurians armored herbivorous quadrupeds , stegosaurians plated herbivorous quadrupeds , ceratopsians bipedal or quadrupedal herbivores with neck frills , pachycephalosaurians bipedal herbivores with thick skulls , ornithopods bipedal or quadrupedal herbivores including " duck-bills " , theropods mostly bipedal carnivores and birds , and sauropodomorphs mostly large herbivorous quadrupeds with long necks and tails.
Birds are now recognized as being the sole surviving lineage of theropod dinosaurs. In traditional taxonomy , birds were considered a separate class that had evolved from dinosaurs, a distinct superorder.
However, a majority of contemporary paleontologists concerned with dinosaurs reject the traditional style of classification in favor of phylogenetic taxonomy; this approach requires that, for a group to be natural, all descendants of members of the group must be included in the group as well.
Birds are thus considered to be dinosaurs and dinosaurs are, therefore, not extinct. Research by Matthew G. Baron, David B.
Norman , and Paul M. Barrett in suggested a radical revision of dinosaurian systematics. Phylogenetic analysis by Baron et al.
They resurrected the clade Ornithoscelida to refer to the group containing Ornithischia and Theropoda. Dinosauria itself was re-defined as the last common ancestor of Triceratops horridus , Passer domesticus and Diplodocus carnegii , and all of its descendants, to ensure that sauropods and kin remain included as dinosaurs.
Using one of the above definitions, dinosaurs can be generally described as archosaurs with hind limbs held erect beneath the body.
The other groups mentioned are, like dinosaurs and pterosaurs, members of Sauropsida the reptile and bird clade , except Dimetrodon which is a synapsid.
None of them had the erect hind limb posture characteristic of true dinosaurs. Dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates of the Mesozoic Era , especially the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.
Other groups of animals were restricted in size and niches; mammals , for example, rarely exceeded the size of a domestic cat, and were generally rodent-sized carnivores of small prey.
In , the estimated number of dinosaur species that existed in the Mesozoic was 1,—2, While dinosaurs were ancestrally bipedal as are all modern birds , some prehistoric species were quadrupeds, and others, such as Anchisaurus and Iguanodon , could walk just as easily on two or four legs.
Cranial modifications like horns and crests are common dinosaurian traits, and some extinct species had bony armor.
Although known for large size, many Mesozoic dinosaurs were human-sized or smaller, and modern birds are generally small in size. Dinosaurs today inhabit every continent, and fossils show that they had achieved global distribution by at least the Early Jurassic epoch.
While recent discoveries have made it more difficult to present a universally agreed-upon list of their distinguishing features, nearly all dinosaurs discovered so far share certain modifications to the ancestral archosaurian skeleton, or are clearly descendants of older dinosaurs showing these modifications.
Although some later groups of dinosaurs featured further modified versions of these traits, they are considered typical for Dinosauria; the earliest dinosaurs had them and passed them on to their descendants.
Such modifications, originating in the most recent common ancestor of a certain taxonomic group, are called the synapomorphies of such a group.
A detailed assessment of archosaur interrelations by Sterling Nesbitt  confirmed or found the following twelve unambiguous synapomorphies, some previously known:.
Nesbitt found a number of further potential synapomorphies and discounted a number of synapomorphies previously suggested.
Some of these are also present in silesaurids , which Nesbitt recovered as a sister group to Dinosauria, including a large anterior trochanter, metatarsals II and IV of subequal length, reduced contact between ischium and pubis, the presence of a cnemial crest on the tibia and of an ascending process on the astragalus, and many others.
A variety of other skeletal features are shared by dinosaurs. However, because they are either common to other groups of archosaurs or were not present in all early dinosaurs, these features are not considered to be synapomorphies.
For example, as diapsids , dinosaurs ancestrally had two pairs of Infratemporal fenestrae openings in the skull behind the eyes , and as members of the diapsid group Archosauria, had additional openings in the snout and lower jaw.
These include an elongated scapula , or shoulder blade; a sacrum composed of three or more fused vertebrae three are found in some other archosaurs, but only two are found in Herrerasaurus ;  and a perforate acetabulum , or hip socket, with a hole at the center of its inside surface closed in Saturnalia tupiniquim , for example.
Dinosaurs stand with their hind limbs erect in a manner similar to most modern mammals , but distinct from most other reptiles, whose limbs sprawl out to either side.
Dinosaur fossils have been known for millennia, although their true nature was not recognized. The Chinese considered them to be dragon bones and documented them as such.
Scholarly descriptions of what would now be recognized as dinosaur bones first appeared in the late 17th century in England.
Part of a bone, now known to have been the femur of a Megalosaurus ,  was recovered from a limestone quarry at Cornwell near Chipping Norton , Oxfordshire, in The fragment was sent to Robert Plot , Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford and first curator of the Ashmolean Museum , who published a description in his The Natural History of Oxford-shire He, therefore, concluded it to be the femur of a huge human, perhaps a Titan or another type of giant featured in legends.
Between and , the Rev William Buckland , the first Reader of Geology at the University of Oxford, collected more fossilized bones of Megalosaurus and became the first person to describe a non-avian dinosaur in a scientific journal.
Gideon Mantell recognized similarities between his fossils and the bones of modern iguanas. He published his findings in The study of these "great fossil lizards" soon became of great interest to European and American scientists, and in the English paleontologist Sir Richard Owen coined the term "dinosaur", using it to refer to the "distinct tribe or sub-order of Saurian Reptiles" that were then being recognized in England and around the world.
With the backing of Prince Albert , the husband of Queen Victoria , Owen established the Natural History Museum, London , to display the national collection of dinosaur fossils and other biological and geological exhibits.
In , William Parker Foulke discovered the first known American dinosaur, in marl pits in the small town of Haddonfield, New Jersey.
Although fossils had been found before, their nature had not been correctly discerned. The creature was named Hadrosaurus foulkii.
It was an extremely important find: Hadrosaurus was one of the first nearly complete dinosaur skeletons found the first was in , in Maidstone, England , and it was clearly a bipedal creature.
This was a revolutionary discovery as, until that point, most scientists had believed dinosaurs walked on four feet, like other lizards. Foulke's discoveries sparked a wave of interests in dinosaurs in the United States, known as dinosaur mania.
Dinosaur mania was exemplified by the fierce rivalry between Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh , both of whom raced to be the first to find new dinosaurs in what came to be known as the Bone Wars.
This fight between the two scientists lasted for over 30 years, ending in when Cope died after spending his entire fortune on the dinosaur hunt.
Unfortunately, many valuable dinosaur specimens were damaged or destroyed due to the pair's rough methods: for example, their diggers often used dynamite to unearth bones.
Modern paleontologists would find such methods crude and unacceptable, since blasting easily destroys fossil and stratigraphic evidence.
Despite their unrefined methods, the contributions of Cope and Marsh to paleontology were vast: Marsh unearthed 86 new species of dinosaur and Cope discovered 56, a total of new species.
Cope's collection is now at the American Museum of Natural History, while Marsh's is at the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University.
The field of dinosaur research has enjoyed a surge in activity that began in the s and is ongoing. This was triggered, in part, by John Ostrom 's discovery and description of Deinonychus , an active predator that may have been warm-blooded, in marked contrast to the then-prevailing image of dinosaurs as sluggish and cold-blooded.
Major new dinosaur discoveries have been made by paleontologists working in previously unexploited regions, including India, South America, Madagascar, Antarctica, and most significantly China the well-preserved feathered dinosaurs in China have further consolidated the link between dinosaurs and their living descendants, modern birds.
The widespread application of cladistics , which rigorously analyzes the relationships between biological organisms, has also proved tremendously useful in classifying dinosaurs.
Cladistic analysis, among other modern techniques, helps to compensate for an often incomplete and fragmentary fossil record. One of the best examples of soft-tissue impressions in a fossil dinosaur was discovered in the Pietraroia Plattenkalk in southern Italy.
The discovery was reported in , and described the specimen of a small, juvenile coelurosaur, Scipionyx samniticus. The fossil includes portions of the intestines, colon, liver, muscles, and windpipe of this dinosaur.
In the March issue of Science , the paleontologist Mary Higby Schweitzer and her team announced the discovery of flexible material resembling actual soft tissue inside a million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex leg bone from the Hell Creek Formation in Montana.
After recovery, the tissue was rehydrated by the science team. Scrutiny under the microscope further revealed that the putative dinosaur soft tissue had retained fine structures microstructures even at the cellular level.
The exact nature and composition of this material, and the implications of Schweitzer's discovery, are not yet clear.
In , a team including Schweitzer announced that, using even more careful methodology, they had duplicated their results by finding similar soft tissue in a duck-billed dinosaur, Brachylophosaurus canadensis , found in the Judith River Formation of Montana.
This included even more detailed tissue, down to preserved bone cells that seem to have visible remnants of nuclei and what seem to be red blood cells.
Among other materials found in the bone was collagen , as in the Tyrannosaurus bone. The type of collagen an animal has in its bones varies according to its DNA and, in both cases, this collagen was of the same type found in modern chickens and ostriches.
The extraction of ancient DNA from dinosaur fossils has been reported on two separate occasions;  upon further inspection and peer review , however, neither of these reports could be confirmed.
However, its known fossils are too fragmentary to tell if it was a dinosaur or only a close relative. Langer et al. When dinosaurs appeared, they were not the dominant terrestrial animals.
The terrestrial habitats were occupied by various types of archosauromorphs and therapsids , like cynodonts and rhynchosaurs.
Their main competitors were the pseudosuchians , such as aetosaurs , ornithosuchids and rauisuchians, which were more successful than the dinosaurs.
These losses left behind a land fauna of crocodylomorphs , dinosaurs, mammals, pterosaurians, and turtles.
Dinosaur evolution after the Triassic followed changes in vegetation and the location of continents. In the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic, the continents were connected as the single landmass Pangaea , and there was a worldwide dinosaur fauna mostly composed of coelophysoid carnivores and early sauropodomorph herbivores.
Early sauropodomorphs did not have sophisticated mechanisms for processing food in the mouth, and so must have employed other means of breaking down food farther along the digestive tract.
Examples of this include the Morrison Formation of North America and Tendaguru Beds of Tanzania. Dinosaurs in China show some differences, with specialized metriacanthosaurid theropods and unusual, long-necked sauropods like Mamenchisaurus.
Conifers and pteridophytes were the most common plants. Sauropods, like earlier sauropodomorphs, were not oral processors, but ornithischians were evolving various means of dealing with food in the mouth, including potential cheek -like organs to keep food in the mouth, and jaw motions to grind food.
By the Early Cretaceous and the ongoing breakup of Pangaea, dinosaurs were becoming strongly differentiated by landmass. The earliest part of this time saw the spread of ankylosaurians, iguanodontians , and brachiosaurids through Europe , North America, and northern Africa.
These were later supplemented or replaced in Africa by large spinosaurid and carcharodontosaurid theropods, and rebbachisaurid and titanosaurian sauropods, also found in South America.
In Asia , maniraptoran coelurosaurians like dromaeosaurids , troodontids , and oviraptorosaurians became the common theropods, and ankylosaurids and early ceratopsians like Psittacosaurus became important herbivores.
Meanwhile, Australia was home to a fauna of basal ankylosaurians, hypsilophodonts , and iguanodontians. A major change in the Early Cretaceous, which would be amplified in the Late Cretaceous, was the evolution of flowering plants.
At the same time, several groups of dinosaurian herbivores evolved more sophisticated ways to orally process food.
Ceratopsians developed a method of slicing with teeth stacked on each other in batteries, and iguanodontians refined a method of grinding with dental batteries , taken to its extreme in hadrosaurids.
There were three general dinosaur faunas in the Late Cretaceous. In the northern continents of North America and Asia, the major theropods were tyrannosaurids and various types of smaller maniraptoran theropods, with a predominantly ornithischian herbivore assemblage of hadrosaurids, ceratopsians, ankylosaurids, and pachycephalosaurians.
In the southern continents that had made up the now-splitting supercontinent Gondwana , abelisaurids were the common theropods, and titanosaurian sauropods the common herbivores.
Finally, in Europe, dromaeosaurids, rhabdodontid iguanodontians, nodosaurid ankylosaurians, and titanosaurian sauropods were prevalent.
Theropods were also radiating as herbivores or omnivores , with therizinosaurians and ornithomimosaurians becoming common. Some other diapsid groups, such as crocodilians , sebecosuchians , turtles, lizards , snakes , sphenodontians , and choristoderans , also survived the event.
The surviving lineages of neornithine birds, including the ancestors of modern ratites , ducks and chickens , and a variety of waterbirds , diversified rapidly at the beginning of the Paleogene period, entering ecological niches left vacant by the extinction of Mesozoic dinosaur groups such as the arboreal enantiornithines , aquatic hesperornithines , and even the larger terrestrial theropods in the form of Gastornis , eogruiids , bathornithids , ratites, geranoidids , mihirungs , and " terror birds ".
It is often stated that mammals out-competed the neornithines for dominance of most terrestrial niches but many of these groups co-existed with rich mammalian faunas for most of the Cenozoic Era.
Dinosaurs belong to a group known as archosaurs, which also includes modern crocodilians. Within the archosaur group, dinosaurs are differentiated most noticeably by their gait.
Dinosaur legs extend directly beneath the body, whereas the legs of lizards and crocodilians sprawl out to either side. Collectively, dinosaurs as a clade are divided into two primary branches, Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Saurischia includes those taxa sharing a more recent common ancestor with birds than with Ornithischia, while Ornithischia includes all taxa sharing a more recent common ancestor with Triceratops than with Saurischia.
Anatomically, these two groups can be distinguished most noticeably by their pelvic structure. Saurischia includes the theropods exclusively bipedal and with a wide variety of diets and sauropodomorphs long-necked herbivores which include advanced, quadrupedal groups.
Unlike birds, the ornithischian pubis also usually had an additional forward-pointing process. Ornithischia includes a variety of species that were primarily herbivores.
Despite the terms "bird hip" and "lizard hip", birds are not part of Ornithischia, but rather Saurischia—birds evolved from earlier dinosaurs with "lizard hips".
The following is a simplified classification of dinosaur groups based on their evolutionary relationships, and organized based on the list of Mesozoic dinosaur species provided by Holtz Knowledge about dinosaurs is derived from a variety of fossil and non-fossil records, including fossilized bones, feces , trackways , gastroliths , feathers , impressions of skin, internal organs and other soft tissues.
Current evidence suggests that dinosaur average size varied through the Triassic, Early Jurassic, Late Jurassic and Cretaceous.
The sauropods were the largest and heaviest dinosaurs. For much of the dinosaur era, the smallest sauropods were larger than anything else in their habitat, and the largest was an order of magnitude more massive than anything else that has since walked the Earth.
Giant prehistoric mammals such as Paraceratherium the largest land mammal ever were dwarfed by the giant sauropods, and only modern whales approach or surpass them in size.
Large animals are more efficient at digestion than small animals, because food spends more time in their digestive systems. This also permits them to subsist on food with lower nutritive value than smaller animals.
Sauropod remains are mostly found in rock formations interpreted as dry or seasonally dry, and the ability to eat large quantities of low-nutrient browse would have been advantageous in such environments.
Scientists will probably never be certain of the largest and smallest dinosaurs to have ever existed. This is because only a tiny percentage of animals were ever fossilized and most of these remain buried in the earth.
Few of the specimens that are recovered are complete skeletons, and impressions of skin and other soft tissues are rare.
Rebuilding a complete skeleton by comparing the size and morphology of bones to those of similar, better-known species is an inexact art, and reconstructing the muscles and other organs of the living animal is, at best, a process of educated guesswork.
The tallest and heaviest dinosaur known from good skeletons is Giraffatitan brancai previously classified as a species of Brachiosaurus.
Its remains were discovered in Tanzania between and The Museo Municipal Carmen Funes in Plaza Huincul , Argentina, has an Argentinosaurus reconstructed skeleton mount that is There were larger dinosaurs, but knowledge of them is based entirely on a small number of fragmentary fossils.
The heaviest and longest dinosaur may have been Maraapunisaurus , known only from a now lost partial vertebral neural arch described in The largest carnivorous dinosaur was Spinosaurus , reaching a length of The largest ornithischian dinosaur was probably the hadrosaurid Shantungosaurus giganteus which measured The smallest dinosaur known is the bee hummingbird ,  with a length of only 5 centimeters 2.
Many modern birds are highly social, often found living in flocks. There is general agreement that some behaviors that are common in birds, as well as in crocodiles closest living relatives of birds , were also common among extinct dinosaur groups.
Interpretations of behavior in fossil species are generally based on the pose of skeletons and their habitat , computer simulations of their biomechanics, and comparisons with modern animals in similar ecological niches.
Those, along with multiple trackways, suggest that gregarious behavior was common in many early dinosaur species.
Trackways of hundreds or even thousands of herbivores indicate that duck-billed hadrosaurids may have moved in great herds, like the American bison or the African Springbok.
Sauropod tracks document that these animals traveled in groups composed of several different species, at least in Oxfordshire , England,  although there is no evidence for specific herd structures.
There is evidence that many types of slow-growing dinosaurs, including various theropods, sauropods, ankylosaurians, ornithopods, and ceratopsians, formed aggregations of immature individuals.
One example is a site in Inner Mongolia that has yielded remains of over 20 Sinornithomimus , from one to seven years old. This assemblage is interpreted as a social group that was trapped in mud.
The crests and frills of some dinosaurs, like the marginocephalians , theropods and lambeosaurines , may have been too fragile to be used for active defense, and so they were likely used for sexual or aggressive displays, though little is known about dinosaur mating and territorialism.
Head wounds from bites suggest that theropods, at least, engaged in active aggressive confrontations. From a behavioral standpoint, one of the most valuable dinosaur fossils was discovered in the Gobi Desert in It included a Velociraptor attacking a Protoceratops ,  providing evidence that dinosaurs did indeed attack each other.
Comparisons between the scleral rings of dinosaurs and modern birds and reptiles have been used to infer daily activity patterns of dinosaurs.
Although it has been suggested that most dinosaurs were active during the day, these comparisons have shown that small predatory dinosaurs such as dromaeosaurids, Juravenator , and Megapnosaurus were likely nocturnal.
Large and medium-sized herbivorous and omnivorous dinosaurs such as ceratopsians, sauropodomorphs, hadrosaurids, ornithomimosaurs may have been cathemeral , active during short intervals throughout the day, although the small ornithischian Agilisaurus was inferred to be diurnal.
Based on fossil evidence from dinosaurs such as Oryctodromeus , some ornithischian species seem to have led a partially fossorial burrowing lifestyle.
A good understanding of how dinosaurs moved on the ground is key to models of dinosaur behavior; the science of biomechanics, pioneered by Robert McNeill Alexander , has provided significant insight in this area.
For example, studies of the forces exerted by muscles and gravity on dinosaurs' skeletal structure have investigated how fast dinosaurs could run,  whether diplodocids could create sonic booms via whip -like tail snapping,  and whether sauropods could float.
Modern birds are known to communicate using visual and auditory signals, and the wide diversity of visual display structures among fossil dinosaur groups, such as horns, frills, crests, sails, and feathers, suggests that visual communication has always been important in dinosaur biology.
Paleontologist Phil Senter has suggested that non-avian dinosaurs relied mostly on visual displays and possibly non-vocal acoustic sounds like hissing, jaw grinding or clapping, splashing and wing beating possible in winged maniraptoran dinosaurs.
He states they were unlikely to have been capable of vocalizing since their closest relatives, crocodilians and birds, use different means to vocalize, the former via the larynx and the latter through the unique syrinx , suggesting they evolved independently and their common ancestor was mute.
However, in contrast to Senter, other researchers have suggested that dinosaurs could vocalize and that the syrinx-based vocal system of birds evolved from a larynx-based one, rather than the two systems evolving independently.
Such vocalizations evolved independently in extant archosaurs numerous times, following increases in body size. All dinosaurs laid amniotic eggs with hard shells made mostly of calcium carbonate.
Most species create somewhat elaborate nests which can be cups, domes, plates, beds scrapes, mounds, or burrows.
Primitive birds and many non-avialan dinosaurs often lay eggs in communal nests, with males primarily incubating the eggs. While modern birds have only one functional oviduct and lay one egg at a time, more primitive birds and dinosaurs had two oviducts, like crocodiles.
Some non-avialan dinosaurs, such as Troodon , exhibited iterative laying, where the adult might lay a pair of eggs every one or two days, and then ensured simultaneous hatching by delaying brooding until all eggs were laid.
When laying eggs, females grow a special type of bone between the hard outer bone and the marrow of their limbs. This medullary bone, which is rich in calcium , is used to make eggshells.
A discovery of features in a Tyrannosaurus skeleton provided evidence of medullary bone in extinct dinosaurs and, for the first time, allowed paleontologists to establish the sex of a fossil dinosaur specimen.
Further research has found medullary bone in the carnosaur Allosaurus and the ornithopod Tenontosaurus. Because the line of dinosaurs that includes Allosaurus and Tyrannosaurus diverged from the line that led to Tenontosaurus very early in the evolution of dinosaurs, this suggests that the production of medullary tissue is a general characteristic of all dinosaurs.
Another widespread trait among modern birds but see below in regards to fossil groups and extant megapodes is parental care for young after hatching.
Jack Horner's discovery of a Maiasaura "good mother lizard" nesting ground in Montana demonstrated that parental care continued long after birth among ornithopods.
However, there is ample evidence of precociality or superprecociality among many dinosaur species, particularly theropods.
For instance, non- ornithuromorph birds have been abundantly demonstrated to have had slow growth rates, megapode -like egg burying behavior and the ability to fly soon after birth.
Genital structures are unlikely to fossilize as they lack scales that may allow preservation via pigmentation or residual calcium phosphate salts.
In , the best preserved specimen of a dinosaur's cloacal vent exterior was described for Psittacosaurus , demonstrating lateral swellings similar to crocodylian musk glands used in social displays by both sexes and pigmented regions which could also reflect a signalling function.
However, this specimen on its own does not offer enough information to determine whether this dinosaur had sexual signalling functions; it only supports the possibility.
Cloacal visual signalling can occur in either males or females in living birds, making it unlikely to be useful to determine sex for extinct dinosaurs.
Because both modern crocodilians and birds have four-chambered hearts albeit modified in crocodilians , it is likely that this is a trait shared by all archosaurs, including all dinosaurs.
Various researchers have supported dinosaurs as being endothermic, ectothermic "cold-blooded" , or somewhere in between. After non-avian dinosaurs were discovered, paleontologists first posited that they were ectothermic.
This was used to imply that the ancient dinosaurs were relatively slow, sluggish organisms, even though many modern reptiles are fast and light-footed despite relying on external sources of heat to regulate their body temperature.
The idea of dinosaurs as ectothermic remained a prevalent view until Robert T. Bakker , an early proponent of dinosaur endothermy, published an influential paper on the topic in Bakker specifically used anatomical and ecological evidence to argue that sauropods, which had hitherto been depicted as sprawling aquatic animals with their tails dragging on the ground, were endotherms that lived vigorous, terrestrial lives.
In , Bakker expanded on his arguments based on energy requirements and predator-prey ratios. One of the greatest contributions to the modern understanding of dinosaur physiology has been paleohistology , the study of microscopic tissue structure in dinosaurs.
Fibrolamellar bone was common in both dinosaurs and pterosaurs,   though not universally present. In saurischian dinosaurs, higher metabolisms were supported by the evolution of the avian respiratory system, characterized by an extensive system of air sacs that extended the lungs and invaded many of the bones in the skeleton, making them hollow.
These traits may have enabled sauropods to grow quickly to gigantic sizes. Like other reptiles, dinosaurs are primarily uricotelic , that is, their kidneys extract nitrogenous wastes from their bloodstream and excrete it as uric acid instead of urea or ammonia via the ureters into the intestine.
This would have helped them to conserve water. The possibility that dinosaurs were the ancestors of birds was first suggested in by Thomas Henry Huxley.
Feathers are one of the most recognizable characteristics of modern birds, and a trait that was also shared by several non-avian dinosaurs.
Based on the current distribution of fossil evidence, it appears that feathers were an ancestral dinosaurian trait, though one that may have been selectively lost in some species.
Simple, branched, feather-like structures are known from heterodontosaurids , primitive neornithischians ,  and theropods,  and primitive ceratopsians.
Evidence for true, vaned feathers similar to the flight feathers of modern birds has been found only in the theropod subgroup Maniraptora, which includes oviraptorosaurs, troodontids, dromaeosaurids, and birds.
Archaeopteryx was the first fossil found that revealed a potential connection between dinosaurs and birds. It is considered a transitional fossil , in that it displays features of both groups.
Brought to light just two years after Charles Darwin 's seminal On the Origin of Species , its discovery spurred the nascent debate between proponents of evolutionary biology and creationism.
This early bird is so dinosaur-like that, without a clear impression of feathers in the surrounding rock, at least one specimen was mistaken for the small theropod Compsognathus.
Most of these specimens were unearthed in the lagerstätte of the Yixian Formation, Liaoning , northeastern China, which was part of an island continent during the Cretaceous.
Though feathers have been found in only a few locations, it is possible that non-avian dinosaurs elsewhere in the world were also feathered.
The lack of widespread fossil evidence for feathered non-avian dinosaurs may be because delicate features like skin and feathers are seldom preserved by fossilization and thus often absent from the fossil record.
The description of feathered dinosaurs has not been without controversy; perhaps the most vocal critics have been Alan Feduccia and Theagarten Lingham-Soliar, who have proposed that some purported feather-like fossils are the result of the decomposition of collagenous fiber that underlaid the dinosaurs' skin,    and that maniraptoran dinosaurs with vaned feathers were not actually dinosaurs, but convergent with dinosaurs.
Because feathers are often associated with birds, feathered dinosaurs are often touted as the missing link between birds and dinosaurs.
However, the multiple skeletal features also shared by the two groups represent another important line of evidence for paleontologists. Areas of the skeleton with important similarities include the neck, pubis, wrist semi-lunate carpal , arm and pectoral girdle , furcula wishbone , and breast bone.
Comparison of bird and dinosaur skeletons through cladistic analysis strengthens the case for the link. Large meat-eating dinosaurs had a complex system of air sacs similar to those found in modern birds, according to a investigation led by Patrick M.
The lungs of theropod dinosaurs carnivores that walked on two legs and had bird-like feet likely pumped air into hollow sacs in their skeletons, as is the case in birds.
CT scanning of Aerosteon' s fossil bones revealed evidence for the existence of air sacs within the animal's body cavity.
Fossils of the troodonts Mei and Sinornithoides demonstrate that some dinosaurs slept with their heads tucked under their arms.
Several deinonychosaur and oviraptorosaur specimens have also been found preserved on top of their nests, likely brooding in a bird-like manner.
Some dinosaurs are known to have used gizzard stones like modern birds. These stones are swallowed by animals to aid digestion and break down food and hard fibers once they enter the stomach.
When found in association with fossils, gizzard stones are called gastroliths. All non-avian dinosaurs and most lineages of birds  became extinct in a mass extinction event , called the Cretaceous—Paleogene K-Pg extinction event , at the end of the Cretaceous period.
Above the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary , which has been dated to However, the specific mechanisms of the extinction event and the extent of its effects on dinosaurs are still areas of ongoing research.
Just before the K-Pg extinction event, the number of non-avian dinosaur species that existed globally has been estimated at between and Rock formations from the Maastrichtian epoch, which directly preceded the extinction, have been found to have lower diversity than the preceding Campanian epoch, which led to the prevailing view of a long-term decline in diversity.
The asteroid impact hypothesis , first brought to wide attention in by Walter Alvarez , Luis Alvarez , and colleagues, attributes the K-Pg extinction event to a bolide an extremely bright meteor impact.
Within hours, the Chicxulub impact would have created immediate effects such as earthquakes,  tsunamis,  and a global firestorm that likely killed unsheltered animals and started wildfires.
Within days, sulphate aerosols released from rocks at the impact site would have contributed to acid rain and ocean acidification. At the time of the K-Pg extinction, the Deccan Traps flood basalts of India were actively erupting.
The eruptions can be separated into three phases around the K-Pg boundary, two prior to the boundary and one after.
Before , arguments that the Deccan Traps eruptions—as opposed to the Chicxulub impact—caused the extinction were usually linked to the view that the extinction was gradual.
Prior to the discovery of the Chicxulub crater, the Deccan Traps were used to explain the global iridium layer;   even after the crater's discovery, the impact was still thought to only have had a regional, not global, effect on the extinction event.
Walter Alvarez himself has acknowledged that the Deccan Traps and other ecological factors may have contributed to the extinctions in addition to the Chicxulub impact.
Whether the Deccan Traps were a major cause of the extinction, on par with the Chicxulub impact, remains uncertain.
Proponents consider the climatic impact of the sulphur dioxide released to have been on par with the Chicxulub impact, and also note the role of flood basalt volcanism in other mass extinctions like the Permian-Triassic extinction event.
They also contend that the causes of different mass extinctions should be assessed separately. Non-avian dinosaur remains have occasionally been found above the K-Pg boundary.
In , Spencer Lucas and colleagues reported the discovery of a single hadrosaur right femur in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico , and described it as evidence of Paleocene dinosaurs.
The rock unit in which the bone was discovered has been dated to the early Paleocene epoch, approximately This has been used to support the view that the K-Pg extinction was gradual.
By human standards, dinosaurs were creatures of fantastic appearance and often enormous size. As such, they have captured the popular imagination and become an enduring part of human culture.
The entry of the word "dinosaur" into the common vernacular reflects the animals' cultural importance: in English, "dinosaur" is commonly used to describe anything that is impractically large, obsolete, or bound for extinction.
Public enthusiasm for dinosaurs first developed in Victorian England, where in , three decades after the first scientific descriptions of dinosaur remains, a menagerie of lifelike dinosaur sculptures was unveiled in London 's Crystal Palace Park.
The Crystal Palace dinosaurs proved so popular that a strong market in smaller replicas soon developed.
In subsequent decades, dinosaur exhibits opened at parks and museums around the world, ensuring that successive generations would be introduced to the animals in an immersive and exciting way.
In the United States, for example, the competition between museums for public attention led directly to the Bone Wars of the s and s, during which a pair of feuding paleontologists made enormous scientific contributions.
The popular preoccupation with dinosaurs has ensured their appearance in literature , film , and other media. Beginning in with a passing mention in Charles Dickens ' Bleak House ,  dinosaurs have been featured in large numbers of fictional works.
Jules Verne 's novel Journey to the Center of the Earth , Sir Arthur Conan Doyle 's book The Lost World , the animated film Gertie the Dinosaur featuring the first animated dinosaur , the iconic film King Kong , the Godzilla and its many sequels, the best-selling novel Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton and its film adaptation are just a few notable examples of dinosaur appearances in fiction.
Authors of general-interest non-fiction works about dinosaurs, including some prominent paleontologists, who have often sought to use the animals as a way to educate readers about science in general.
Dinosaurs are ubiquitous in advertising ; numerous companies have referenced dinosaurs in printed or televised advertisements, either in order to sell their own products or in order to characterize their rivals as slow-moving, dim-witted, or obsolete.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Superorder of reptiles fossil. For other uses, see Dinosaur disambiguation. Temporal range: Late Triassic — Present , Further information: History of paleontology.
Edward Drinker Cope. Theissen Ingrid van Bergen Frau Heimes Steffi Kühnert Schwester Erika Maria Magdalena Wardzinska Schwester Iris Ignaz Kirchner Edit Did You Know?
Trivia Final acting role of Walter Giller. Frequently Asked Questions This FAQ is empty. Add the first question. Edit Details Country: Germany.
Language: German. Also Known As: Dinosaurier - Gegen uns seht ihr alt aus! Filming Locations: Berlin, Germany. Sound Mix: Dolby.
Color: Color. Edit page. Clear your history. Johann Schneider. Tobias Hardmann. Bertram Kubitschek. Schwester Erika. Schwester Eliza as Maria Wardzinska.
Schwester Iris. Victor Semlitsch.Diese Ausgabe ist verbunden mit Dinosaurier, einem reich illustrierten Buch, das Ihnen einen Überblick über die großen Riesen, die die Erde bewohnten, verschafft. Beginnend von der Untersuchung von Dinosaurier-Fossilien, deren Einstufung, und die unterschiedlichen Arten, die in verschiedenen Zeiten der Evolution der Erde (Jura, Kreide, ) lebten, bis hin zu ihrer Ausrottung. Dank dieser. Dinosaurs were a group of vertebrate animals that lived on Earth during the Mesozoic era. Many of the dinosaurs on Terra Nova are invented, but the real types that have appeared are all from the Cretaceous Period, the final and longest period of the Mesozoic. 1 Lists of Dinosaurs and Other. This page was last edited on 23 December , at Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Dinosaurs Temporal range: Late Triassic – Present, – 0 Mya (Range includes birds (Aves)) PreꞒ Ꞓ O S D C P T J K Pg N (Possible Middle Triassic record) A compilation of dinosaur skeletons. Clockwise from top left: Microraptor gui (a winged theropod), Apatosaurus louisae (a giant sauropod), Edmontosaurus regalis (a duck-billed ornithopod), Triceratops horridus (a horned. Discover Dinosaur. Dinosaurs once roamed here. Their fantastic remains are still visible embedded in the rocks. Today, the mountains, desert and untamed rivers flowing in deep canyons, support an array of life.